In addition to the four natural complementary bases, a further two… or another great advancement in the field of artificial life or big thanks to visionaries like Craig Venter and many others.
Discussion instead of whopping.
Caution Instead of fear.
… CRISPR heals you rather than faith…
The entire genetic alphabet contains only four letters. These combine into pairs that form the entire helix of the bottom. It depends only on their arrangement to create a butterfly, a hippo or a man. This has been true throughout the evolution of life on earth – until now. Scientists at the Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) have now announced the development of The first stable polosyntetického organism.
Normal-bottom helix. They were based on a study published in the year 2014, where they were synthesized by a base pair of DNA. Thanks to the experience of this work, they have been able to create a new bacteria – it has in addition to four natural bases (a, T, C and G), which are in every living organism, also two artificial bases, which they called X and Y.. Professor Floyd Romesberg, who led the research, demonstrated that their-organism is able to keep these two new nucleic bases indefinitely – even if they divide and multiply. The study, which described this success, was published in the January issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Practical applications of such a type of organism are still a distant future, but scientists have already indicated what could be done. In the future, such produced organisms could be used, for example, to transport drugs precisely to the place where they would be needed. They may have the qualities that only their creators will want, so the number and variety of applications is almost endless.
How to create Položivot
When the Romesbergův team of the year 2014 announced the creation of new nucleic bases, at the same time he managed to place this pair into the modified E. coli bacteria – but was unable to keep it there. When E. coli split, the X and Y bases of it “falling”. The genome was unstable, which prevented any use in practice.
Escherichia coli is a rod bacteria moving through bičíků. It belongs to the intestinal mikrofloře of blooded animals, including humans. E. coli belongs to the best prostudovaným microorganisms as it is a model organism for gene and clinical studies… In order to be considered as an organism, the organism must be sustained genetically stable not one day, not even his entire life, but also in other generations. And this has now been done thanks to two young scientists who have come up with a way to stabilize the X and Y in the organism. Yorke Zhang and Brian Lamb have improved several previously used procedures, in particular they came with an optimized version of Y – the enzymes recognize it better and also accept.. Finally, they tested everything using the tool CRISPR-Cas9, increasingly popular methods of gene editing. Thanks to this, they managed to keep X and Y in the E. Coli genome after 60 generations, which, according to scientists, are proof that they will last forever.
There is no risk, soothing the author of work. Romesberg, when talking to journalists, emphasized several times that this work is intended only for the editing of unicellular organisms and should definitely not be used in more complex organisms. And also that there is not yet a single application that could use their discovery. In an interview with the Guardian Romesberg, he stated that there is no risk that this new položivot could spread spontaneously or that there would be a scenario from the Jurassic Park–that is, that organisms would multiply, even if they were created to be unable to do so. “Evolution is beginning to take something like this, and then it begins to adapt and change. But our X and Y are not like natural DNA, nature has nothing to do with them. We have tested many times that when we do not give the cell X and Y, they die every time. “
If these beautiful discoveries are interesting, try my work simulators of artificial life, which describes neural networks, genetic algorithms, or cellular automata…